Saturday, April 26, 2014

Top Journalists of India

This question become important when you have to match a journalist with a newspaper/ tv channel in UGC paper. So i am providing a list of important Indian Journalists.

Note:- Don't rely on this list only. Make your own notes and update them seriously.

1. Rajat Sharma is a well known face in the Indian News Industry. He is the founder of the Indian Hindi news channel India TV. He is best known for hosting the show Aap Ki Adaalat and Breaking News. Being in this Industry for a number of years, Rajat Sharma was one of the youngest Editors in the print media at the national level. Rajat Sharma’s journalistic stamina ahs made him immensely successful and his show Aap Ki Adaalat is undoubtedly one of the most respected interview shows ever on Indian television. Rajat Sharma is married to Ritu Dhawan.

2. Barkha Dutt is an eminent Media personality of India. She is a popular Indian TV journalist and columnist. Barkha dutt gained popularity for her reportage of Kargil War. She has bagged many national and international awards. She is honoured with The Padma Shri Award, which is India’s fourth highest civilian honour. She writes a column for The Hindustan Times. She is a group editor with NDTV. Barkha was born in New Delhi on 18 December 1971 and received her education from New Delhi. In 2008, Barkha Dutt received the Indian News Broadcasting Award for the Most Intelligent News Show Host. Her talent and capability makes her one of the most intellgent and prominent Media person in India.

3. Vinod Dua is one of the most widely popular names in India Media today. He has been associated with this Industry since 1974. He was awarded the Padma Shri for Journalism in 2008.. He has witnessed the transition of Indian television from Government owned to the multi channel broadcasting industry. Vinod Dua is a famous anchor, political commentator, election analyst, producer and director. He is most prominently known for his very famous show Zaika India Ka on NDTV, in which he travels places and imparts information about the delicacies of different cities, states and countries.

Other notable programs he has anchored include

Tasveer-e-Hind (1997–98) on DD3,
Chunav Chunauti (March, 1998) on Sony Entertainment Television,
Election analysis (1999) on Zee News,
Pratidin and Parakh (2000–2003) on Sahara TV
and Kaun Banega Mukhyamantri (2003) on STAR News

Vinod Dua is presently associated with IBN7 for daily news and analysis, election and budget analysis.

4. Prabhu Chawla is the former editor of language publications in India Today, India’s leading weekly newsmagazine. He is currently the editor-in-cheif of The New Indian Express newspaper in India, it is a Chennai-based english newspaper. Prabhu Chawla was born in 1946 and is better known for his analytical approach and sharp political judgement. He hosts the very popular show “Seedhi Baat”, which is a talk show with celebrity guests. Prabhu Chawla was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government in 2003. He is married and has two sons Ankur and Anubhav. Now Prabhu Chawla hosts a new talk show on ETV called Sachchi Baat.

5. Richa Anirudh is an IBN 7 Television news anchor. She is one of the most prominent faces of Indian Media Industry. She is from New Delhi and She hosts famous show “Zindagi Live” on IBN7. In the year 2004, Richa Anirudh was selected among the 12 best anchors of next generation across Indian news channels by Pitch magazine. She was honored with “Best Anchor’s Award” in 2005 by Ekta Mission. She has earlier worked with Indian News Channel Headlines Today and Channel 7.

6. Pankaj Pachauri is from Lucknow and is a senior TV anchor, associated with NDTV. Currently he hosts many program in NDTV including well known HUM LOG and Money Mantra in NDTV India and NDTV Profit. He is a very eminent journalist and has won many prestigious awards. He was honoured with ‘The Statesman Award for Rural Reporting’ in 1989. He also recieved the Srikant Verma Award for journalism in 1990. He has formerly been associated with international media houses inlcuding BBC, Department of Journalism at Berkeley, University of California. He is currently the Managing Editor of NDTV.

7. Vir Sanghvi is an eminent journalist from Mumbai. He is an Indian print and television journalist, columnist, and talk show host. Vir Sanghvi has a way too long association with the India Media Industry. He was the founder-editor of the Bombay magazine at the age of 23. He later edited Imprint and Sunday magazine. He is also the former editor of Hindustan Times. Currently, he is an Advisor, at HT Media. Vir Sanghvi has hosted a number of shows which include A Question of Answers, Cover Story and Star Talk, Face the Music and One on One. He has also authored a biography of the late Madhavrao Scindia, which was released by Sonia Gandhi in 2009, in Delhi.

8. Prannoy Roy is the founder of NDTV India. He is a popular media journalist and serves as the Executive Chairperson of NDTV. Prannoy is from Kolkata and is married to Radhika Roy, who is popular communist politician Brinda Karat’s sister. Also, popular social activitist and author Arundhati roy is Prannoy’s first cousin. NDTV is India’s leading news and current affairs network today. Prannoy hold a Ph.D in Economics from the Delhi School of Economics. He is a qualified Chartered Accountant.

9. Rajdeep Sardesai is a popular Indian journalist associated with the Industry for over 15 years. He is an eminent political commentator and news presenter. He is the Editor-in-Chief of IBN18 Network, that includes CNN-IBN, IBN-7 and IBN-Lokmat. He is the former head of the Department of Sociology at St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai. He is married to Sagarika Ghose, a journalist and fellow senior editor and anchor at CNN-IBN, since 1994. They have two children, son Ishan and daughter Tarini. Rajdeep entered the Television Media Industry in 1994.

10. Arnan Goswami is the News anchor of the Indian news channel Times Now. He is an eminent Indian journalist and is the Editor-in-chief of Times Now. He has a prominent contribution to the rise of Times Now Channel. It was launched in January 2006. Popular shows which he hosts are The Newshour, Frankly Speaking with Arnab. Arnab has recieved a number of awards and has written a book named Combating Terrorism: The Legal Challenge. He is widely considered to be one of the top four English News TV journalists in India- other three being- Karan Thapar, Barkha Dutt and Rajdeep Sardesai.

11. Shereen Bhan is one of the news journalist and anchor on the other hand Delhi Bureau Chief and Executive Editor of CNBC- TV 18. She started her career as news resercher with Karan Thapar. Shereen with her beauty and unique style of anchoring made her popular in this field. She has worked with UTV as an Associate Producer and currently working with CNBC-TV 18. She has also produced some of the famous shows such as ”We The People” and ”Line of Fire”. She has been felicitated as ”FICCI Woman of the year 2005″.

12. Shekhar Gupta is one of the most leading journalist which later led him to become Editor-in-chief of leading newspaper The Indian Express. His 33 year record in Indian journalism credit him with some of the most important news break of the indian journalism. He joined Indian Express as a reporter and since then make this foundation fearless, fair and independent.He has covered some of the most courageous news stories such as north-east insurgency and US terrorist attack and many more. He has weekly column ”National Interest” which is the subject of his forthcoming book which covers various issues.

13. Sagarika Ghose is one of the most noted journalist who has been working in this field since two decades. She has been working since 1991 with some of the most prestigious publications The Outlook Magazine as well as news channels such as Times of India and The Indian Express. Currently she is working as Deputy Editor and Prime time anchor on famous news network CNN-IBN. Being a part of doing extensive reporting on elections and features stories, she started her show ‘’Face the Nation’’ from which she got award for best presented news show.

14. Suzanna Arundhati Roy(born 24 November 1961) is an Indian author and political activist who is best known for the 1998 Man Booker Prize for Fiction-winning novel The God of Small Things (1997) and for her involvement in human rights and environmental causes. Roy's novel became the biggest-selling book by a nonexpatriate Indian author.Roy is a cousin of prominent media personality Prannoy Roy, the head of the leading Indian TV media group NDTV.[Since the success of her novel, Roy has written a television serial, The Banyan Tree, and the documentary DAM/AGE: A Film with Arundhati Roy (2002).

15. Deepak Chaurasia is a controversial Indian journalist and Hindi-language news anchor for India News. He is the host of Tonight with Deepak Chaurasia. Deepak cofounded Aaj Tak. In 2003 he joined DD News as a consulting editor. He returned to Aaj Tak in July 2004. Aaj Tak is a leading Hindi current affairs channel from the TV Today Network. He later joined STAR News which became ABP News. Deepak joined India News in the capacity of editor-in-chief in January 2013.

16. Karan Thapar is an Indian journalist and a television commentator and interviewer. He was associated with CNN-IBN and hosted The Devil's Advocate and The Last Word. He is currently associated with Headlines Today and hosts the show To the Point.He began his career in journalism with The Times in Lagos, Nigeria and later worked as their Leader Writer on the Indian subcontinent till 1981. In 1982 he joined London Weekend Television where he worked for the next 11 years. He then moved to India where he worked with The Hindustan Times Television Group, Home TV and United Television before setting up his own production house in August 2001, Infotainment Television, which makes programmes for amongst others BBC, Doordarshan and Channel News Asia.

Currently the President of Infotainment Television, Thapar is noted for his aggressive interviews with leading politicians and celebrities- his interviews with cricketer Kapil Dev, Narendra Modi, George Fernandes, J. Jayalalithaa, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, General Pervez Musharraf, Benazir Bhutto, Arun Jaitley, Ram Jethmalani, U.S Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and The Dalai Lama are particularly well remembered.

In April 2014, Thapar quit CNN-IBN to join Headlines Today. He hosts the new show of the Chanel titled To the Point whose pilot episode run on 1 April 2014.

17. Ravish Kumar is an Indian TV anchor and journalist. He hosts many program in NDTV including the well known 'Prime Time','Hum Log' and 'Ravish Ki Report. He was honoured with the Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism Award for the Journalist of the Year 2013 (Broadcast).He has also won the Indian news television award 2014 for Best News anchor(Hindi).

18. Rahul Kanwal is an anchor of an Indian news channel Headlines Today and Aaj Tak. In 2007, he became the youngest person to head a news channel in India when he replaced outgoing director S. Srinivasan.He began his career with Zee News, and was the youngest correspondent for that channel.Rahul Kanwal has keen interest in political and strategic affairs.

Below is the list of some other popular journalists. These are not so much important but can't be neglected.

Alfred D'Cruz, the first Indian sub-editor of The Times of India, Mumbai in 1947, when Britishers Sir Francis Low was the Editor and Claude Scott was the News Editor. Editor of The Times of India Directory & Yearbook 1984. Co-author of 'Saligao: Focus on a Picturesque Goan Village'. Awarded posthumously the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Journalist Association of India in 2012 and the Laxmidas Borkar Memorial Award in 2013.

V. K. Hamzah Abbas, an editor of the award-winning, Malayalam-language newspaper Madhyamam Daily.

M. J. Akbar, Mobashar Jawed Akbar, (11 January 1951- ) an English-language journalist and editor-in-chief for the The Sunday Guardian and Deccan Chronicle (Hyderabad).

Javed Anand, an alternative journalist, co-founder of Sabrang Communications, and co-editor of Communalism Combat, who is married to journalist Teesta Setalvad. The couple shared the Maharana Mewar Foundation's Hakim Khan Sur Award in 1999.

Dakshinaranjan Basu, a journalist from Kolkata (The namesake of the Dakshinaranjan Basu Memorial Award).

Praful Bidwai, a journalist and activist against nuclear armaments, a past recipient of the C H Mohammed Koya National Journalism Award, who along with Achin Vanaik won the 2000 Sean McBride Peace Prize.

Vikram Chandra (NDTV) (7 January 1967- ), a journalist, anchor, and group CEO at NDTV, and his mother is former journalist Nandini Chandra.

Amitabha Chowdhury, winner of the 1961 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism.

Shoma Chaudhury, managing editor of the Indian daily Tehelka. She has won Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism Awards for print journalism in 2007, the Chameli Devi Award in 2009, and the Mumbai Press Club Award for Political Writing in 2012 on Soni Sori titled, ‘The Inconvenient Truth of Soni Sori’.

Sucheta Dalal, an influential female columnist, who is the winner of the civilian award Padma Shri in 2006.

Swapan Dasgupta (3 September 1955- ), a senior editor at multiple major newspapers in India and TV personality.

Jyotirmoy Dey, an investigative journalist who was murdered 11 June 2011 and posthumously awarded the Prem Bhatia Award in 2011 for political reporter of the year, which he shared with Josy Joseph.

Bahar Dutt, an environmental and wildlife journalist and editor for CNN-IBN Live and winner of multiple awards, including the 2006 Ramnath Goenka Award for excellence in environmental reporting, as well as sister of Barkha Dutt

T. J. S. George (7 May 1928- ), who is a past recipient of the C H Mohammed Koya National Journalism Award.

Ramnath Goenka Founder of India Express Group and publisher of the English-language The Indian Express, Hindi-language Jansatta, and Marathi-language Loksatta.

Gour Kishore Ghosh,winner of the 1981 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts.

Santosh Kumar Ghosh, an award-winning Bengali journalist and editor of Anandabazar Patrika (The namesake of the "Santosh Kumar Ghosh Memorial Award").

Barjinder Singh Hamdard Editor-in-chief of the largest selling Punjabi-language newspaper, Daily Ajit, from Jalandhar.

R. Jagannathan Editor-in-Chief of FirstPost and business journalist.

Yusuf Jameel, Kashmiri, winner of the 1996 CPJ International Press Freedom Award
Josy Joseph, Ramnath Goenka Journalist of the Year (print) Award Winner and Prem Bhatia Award Winner.

Kalki Krishnamurthy, a well-known Tamil editor, columnist and the founder of Kalki magazine.

R. K. Laxman, winner of the 1984 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts.

Ashok Malik a former editor for English-language newsapper The Pioneer and current editor for Niti Central.

Annamma Mathew (22 March 1922 – 10 July 2003), chief editor of the Malayalam-language Vanitha women's magazine for Malayala Manorama and wife of K. M. Mathew.

K. M. Mathew (2 January 1917 – 1 August 2010), known as the chief editor of Malayala Manorama, which has the largest cirulation of any Malayalam-language newspaper, and husband of Annamma Mathew.

Udayan Mukherjee 2012, Ramnath Goenka Awards and he is Managing Editor for CNBC India.

S. Jayachandran Nair, editor of the Malayalam journal Samakalika Malayalam Vaarika, who is a past recipient of the C H Mohammed Koya National Journalism Award.

A G Noorani (16 September 1930- ), a columnist, as well as a historian and lawyer, who is a past recipient of the C H Mohammed Koya National Journalism Award.

Rajalakshmi Parthasarathy, or Mrs. Y. G. P., (8 November 1925- ), who was a 2010 Padma Shri civilian award recipient.

Nanasaheb Parulekar (September 20, 1898 – January 8, 1973), a founder of Marathi-language newspaper Sakal and chairman of the Press Trust of India, a news agency.

N. P. Rajendran, an award-winning editor of Mathrubhumiand Malayalam-language journalist.

Nidhi Razdan, recipient of the 2007 Ramnath Goenka Award for Excellence in Journalism.

Dr. Prannoy Roy ("Father of Television Journalism in India").

Palagummi Sainath, winner of the 2007 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts.

Niranjan Sengupta, a former president of the National Union of Journalist (India) (Namesake of the "Niranjan Sengupta Memorial Award").

Teesta Setalvad, an award-winning alternative journalist and human rights activist, co-founder of Sabrang Communications, and co-editor of Communalism Combat.

Arun Shourie, is a World Press Freedom hero and winner of the 1982 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts.

Samban R, Award winning journalist based in Kerala. Winner of several awards inclding Press Council of India Award for rural journalism and Cushrow Irani Prize for environmental reporting.

Madhu Trehan is the co-founder of India Today.

Boobli George Verghese, winner of the 1975 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communication Arts.

If someone is left behind then comment below.I will update it.

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

After you people got bored of the analysis i will upload some other important topics.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

In 1948, Shannon was an American mathematician, Electronic engineer and Weaver was an American scientist both of them join together to write an article in “Bell System Technical Journal” called “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” and also called as “Shannon-Weaver model of communication”.

This model is specially designed to develop the effective communication between sender and receiver. Also they find factors which affecting the communication process called “Noise”. At first the model was developed to improve the Technical communication. Later it’s widely applied in the field of Communication.

The model deals with various concepts like Information source, transmitter, Noise, channel, message, receiver, channel, information destination, encode and decode.

Sender :  The originator of message or the information source selects desire message.

Encoder : The transmitter which converts the message into signals.

Note: The sender’s messages converted into signals like waves or Binary data which is compactable to transmit the messages through cables or satellites. For example: In telephone the voice is converted into wave signals and it transmits through cables.

Decoder : The reception place of the signal which converts signals into message. A reverse process of encode.

Note : The receiver converts those binary data or waves into message which is comfortable and understandable for receiver. Otherwise receiver can’t receive the exact message and it will affect the effective communication between sender and receiver.

Receiver : The destination of the message from sender.

Note : Based on the decoded message the receiver gives their feed back to sender. If the message distracted by noise it will affect the communication flow between sender and receiver.

Noise:  The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel. During this process the messages may distracted or affected by physical noise like horn sounds, thunder and crowd noise or encoded signals may distract in the channel during the transmission process which affect the communication flow or the receiver may not receive the correct message.

Note : The model is clearly deals with external noises only which affect the messages or signals from external sources. For example: If there is any problems occur in network which directly affect the mobile phone communication or distract the messages.

Practical Example of  Shannon-Weaver model of communication :

Mohan Singh(PM) made call to his assistant “come here I want to see you”.  During his call, noise appeared (transmission error) and his assistant received “I want” only. Again Assistant asked Mohan (feedback) “what do you want Mohan”.

Sender       :   Mohan

Encoder     :   Telephone (Mohan)

Channel     :   Cable

Noise          :   Distraction in voice

Reception  :   Telephone (Assistant)

Receiver     :   Assistant.

Due to transmission error or noise, Assistant can’t able to understand Mohan's messages.

*The noise which affect the communication flow between them.

Criticism of Shannon-Weaver model of communication :

1.       One of the simplest model and its general applied in various communication theories.
2.       The model which attracts both academics of Human communication and Information theorist to leads their further research in communication.
3.       It’s more effective in person-to-person communication than group or mass audience.
4.       The model based on “Sender and Receiver”. Here sender plays the primary role and receiver plays the secondary role (receive the information or passive).
5.       Communication is not a one way process.  If it’s behaved like that, it will lose its strength. For example: Audience or receiver who listening a radio, reading the books or watching television is a one way communication because absence of feedback.
6.       Understanding Noise will helps to solve the various problems in communication.

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Final analysis of UGC NET Dec. 2013 IInd paper Que 36- 45

36. Identify the correct sequence of marketing approach in relation to advertising and public relations.

(A) Product knowledge, prospecting, approach decision, establishing needs
(B) Establishing needs, product knowledge, approach decision, prospecting
(C) Prospecting, establishing needs, approach decision, product knowledge.
(D) Approach decision, prospecting, product knowledge, establishing needs.

Answer:- A

These are step wise.

1. Firstly you should have the product knowledge. What you want to sell? What your product is?
An understanding of a good or service that might include having acquired information about its application, function, features, use and support requirements. A business sales representative is an example of an individual that is typically expected to acquire considerable product knowledge about the goods and services that they are responsible for selling to consumers.

2. Then is prospecting which means the search for potential customers or buyers. You have to search customers for your product in order to sell.

3. Then the decision to approach to the customer in order to demonstrate your product and sell it to him/her.

4. Then the final step is establishing needs. The organization that can understand why customers make decisions such as such as who buys, what they buy and how they buy will, by catering more closely for customers satisfaction and needs, become potentially more successful.

37. The correct sequence in the communication process is
(A) Selection, attention, perception, retention
(B) Attention, selection, retention, perception
(C) Selection, retention, perception, attention
(D) Perception, attention, selection, retention

Answer:- D

Consider a smoker. He has a perception of smoking and various smoking brands. When he watches advertisement about cigarettes on Television then he give them attention. Various brands are advertised and he remind and select some good brands and then go to a shop and there a problem occurs. He remember only one brand (retention) and buy it. In this cycle the communication process occurs. So option D is correct.

38. Identify the correct sequence of the following statutes:

(A) The Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Telegraph Act, the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Post Office Act.
(B) The Indian Post Office Act, the Indian Telegraph Act, the Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Penal Code
(C) The Indian Telegraph Act, the Indian Post Office Act, the Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Penal Code
(D) The Indian Penal Code, the Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Telegraph Act, the Indian Post Office Act

Answer:- D

Indian Penal Code (IPC, Hindi: भारतीय दण्ड संहिता) is the main criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code, intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. It was drafted in 1860 and came into force in British India during the early British Raj period in 1862.

The publication of newspapers is regulated primarily by the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867. The Act seeks to regulate the operation of printing presses and newspapers and registration and preservation of copies of such newspapers.

The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 is a law in India that governs the use of telegraphy, phones, communication, radio, telex and fax in India. It gives the Government of India exclusive privileges of establishing, maintaining and working telegraphs. It also authorizes the government to tap phone lines under appropriate conditions. The act came into force on October 1, 1885.

In 1866 the Post Office Act was enacted which was subsequently amended by Act III of 1882 and Act XVI of 1896.

39. Identify the correct sequence of chronological order of the following newspapers that were launched during freedom movement:

(A) Bombay Herald, Madras Courier, Madras Gazette, Asiatic Mirror
(B) Asiatic Mirror, Bombay Herald, Madras Courier, Madras Gazette
(C) Madras Courier, Bombay Herald, Asiatic Mirror, Madras Gazette
(D) Madras Gazette, Madras Courier, Bombay Herald, Asiatic Mirror

Answer:- C

Madras Courier
British India
Published weekly at first from 1785-10-12 to around 1818, with government sanction. Its proprietor was Richard Johnson.
Bombay Herald
British India
Published weekly from 1789 to 1792. Its proprietors are unknown.
The Asiatic Mirror and Commercial Advertiser
British India
Published weekly at first from 1788-02 to 1820-05. Its proprietors were C.K. Bruce and Dr. Shoolbred.

Madras Gazette
Published in Madras: 1 January - 28 February 1795

Here it’s masthead:-

Madras Gazette

Madras Courier newspaper:-

Asiatic mirror masthead:-

The Asiatic Mirror

40. Identify the correct sequence of sales steps a PR person should know.
(A) Creation of confidence, Interest, attention, selling the product
(B) Selling the product, attention, interest, creation of confidence
(C) Attention, selling the product, interest, creation of confidence
(D) Attention, Interest, creation of confidence, selling the product

Answer: - D

It is an easy question.

A Public Relation person first gain attraction of its customers towards his/her product by advertising and then creates interest of the customers in that product. Then he will create confidence in them of buying that product and finally sell it to them.

For example:- Hum ek surf kharidna chahte hain to hum tv pe surf ki ads ke taraf dhyan dete hain. Dheere dheere unme se ek ad. Me hamara interest bn jata hai. Fir ad. Aapne dekhe he hai d”daag gayab” , “daag ache lgte hain”, “safai dhinchak”. Ye sb use kiye jate hain taki company wale hum customer log mein ek confidence paida kar sken ki definitely I will help us and then finally hum unke jaal me gir kar o product kharid lete hain.

41. Match List – I with List – II:
 List – I                           List – II
 (Name)                          (Area)

a. Volney B. Palmer       1. New Journalism
b. Tim Berners-Lee        2. Advertising
c. Joseph Pulitzer            3. Web
d. D.W. Griffith              4. Film

 Codes :
       a        b        c        d
(A) 2        3        1        4
(B) 3        2        1        4
(C) 4        3        1        2
(D) 3        2        4        1

Answer:- A

Volney B. Palmer opened the first American advertising agency, in Philadelphia in 1850. This agency placed ads produced by its clients in various newspapers.

Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as "TimBL", is a British computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.

Joseph Pulitzer (April 10, 1847 – October 29, 1911), born Pulitzer József, was a Hungarian-American Jewish newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World. Pulitzer introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s.

David Llewelyn Wark "D. W." Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director, mostly remembered as the director of the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation and the subsequent film Intolerance (1916).

42. Match List – I with List – II:
 List – I                         List – II
(Concept)                     (Author)

a. W.W. Rostow          1. Entropy
b. Shannon &               2. Evolutionary Perspective
c. Marshal                    3. Growth theory
d. Herbert Spencer       4. Medium is the message

Codes :
       a          b         c         d
(A) 3          1         4         2
(B) 1          4         2         3
(C) 2          3         1         4
(D) 2          3         4         1

Answer:- A

Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was a United States economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966–69.
Rostow is known for his book The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960), which was used in several fields of social science.

The Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models." It embodies the concepts of information source, message, transmitter, signal, channel, noise, receiver, information destination, probability of error, encoding, decoding, information rate, channel capacity, etc. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of "information theory."

"The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in the message, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived.

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies.
Spencer first articulated his evolutionary perspective in his essay, 'Progress: Its Law and Cause', published in Chapman's Westminster Review in 1857, and which later formed the basis of the First Principles of a New System of Philosophy (1862).

43. Match List – I with List – II:
 List – I                                                                 List – II
 (Book)                                                                 (Author)

a. Crystallizing Public Opinion                            1. Sandra Oliver
b. The Power of Corporate Communication        2. Edward L. Bernays

c. Effective public relations                                  3. Scott M.Cutlip

d. Public Relations Strategy                                 4. Paul A. Argenti

Codes :
       a       b       c      d
(A) 4       2       3      1
(B) 3       2       1      4
(C) 2       4       3      1
(D) 1       3      2       4

Answer:- C

EDWARD BERNAYS was a press agent and public relations consultant to many clients, including Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Calvin Coolidge, the American Tobacco Company, General Electric, Alcoa, the American Dental Association, Dodge Motors, the NAACP, and many others. In 1923 wrote Crystallizing Public Relations, which provided principles and practices for an emerging profession. At New York University, he taught the first college course in public relations.

The Power of Corporate Communication: Crafting the Voice and Image of Your Business  
by Paul Argenti (Author), Janis Forman (Author)

Scott Munson Cutlip (July 15, 1915 in Buckhannon, West Virginia - August 18, 2000 in Madison, Wisconsin) was a pioneer in public relations education. In 1952 he co-wrote the first edition of Effective Public Relations with Allen H. Center.

Public Relations Strategy A book by
Sandra M Oliver (Author)

44. Match List – I with List – II :

  List – I                                    List – II
(Director)                                  (Film)

a. Ketan Mehta                    1. Jaane Bhi Do Yaaron
b. Kundan Shah                   2. Aarth
c. Mahesh Bhatt                   3. Parinda
d. Vidhu Vinod  Chopra      4. Mirch Masala

Codes :
       a      b      c      d
(A) 4      1      2      3
(B) 1      2      4      3
(C) 4      2      3      1
(D) 3      4      2      1

Answer:- A

Mirch Masala (Spices in English) is a 1987 Hindi film directed by Ketan Mehta.

Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro (Devnagari: जाने भी दो यारों, English: Just Let It Go, Friends) is a 1983 Hindi film directed by Kundan Shah and produced by NFDC. It is a dark satire on the rampant corruption in Indian politics, bureaucracy, news media and business, and stars an ensemble cast that includes the likes of Naseeruddin Shah, Ravi Baswani, Om Puri, Pankaj Kapur, Satish Shah, Satish Kaushik, Bhakti Barve and Neena Gupta.

Arth (Hindi: अर्थ, in Meaning) is a 1982 film directed by Mahesh Bhatt, starring Shabana Azmi, Kulbhushan Kharbanda, Smita Patil, Raj Kiran and Rohini Hattangadi. It features a memorable soundtrack by Ghazal duo, Jagjit Singh and Chitra Singh.

Parinda (Hindi: परिंदा, English: The Bird) is an award-winning 1989 Indian crime drama film directed and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. It is considered by many to be the turning point in reality in Hindi cinema, as the theme of the film discusses the real life of Indian underworld gangsters and the general life of residents in the city of Mumbai. The film stars Jackie Shroff, Anil Kapoor, Nana Patekar and Madhuri Dixit in the lead roles. It won two National Film Awards and five Filmfare Awards, and was India's official entry for the 1990 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.The movie was titled Kabutarkhana but later changed and release as Parinda.

45. Match List – I with List – II :

List – I                                                                               List – II
(Author)                                                                            (Models)

a. Preparation, Implementation, Impact Model              1. Lindermann

b. Three step yardstick model                                        2. Watson & Noble

c. Pyramid Model                                                           3. Cutlip, Center & Broom

d. Short term and continuing programme model            4. McNamara

Codes :
         a       b      c       d
(A)   2       4       1      3
(B)   3       2       4      1
(C)   4       1       2      3
(D)   3       1      4       2

Answer: - D

We will study this in detail: -

Preparation, Implementation, Impact Model       

Cutlip, Center and Broom’s PII Model, outlined in their widely used text, Effective Public
Relations, takes its name from three levels of research which they term “preparation, implementation and impact”.

Specific research questions arise at each step in the PII Model, illustrated in Figure below. Answering these questions with research contributes to increased understanding and adds information for assessing effectiveness. Noble and Watson (1999) explain: “The bottom rung (step) of preparation evaluation assesses the information and strategic planning; implementation evaluation considers tactics and effort; while impact evaluation gives feedback on the outcome”.

A noteworthy and pioneering element of the PII Model was the separation of outputs from impact or outcomes and identification that these different stages need to be researched with different methods. Also, identification of the steps of communication – and, therefore, what should be measured at each stage or level – is useful in guiding practitioners.

However, the PII Model does not prescribe methodologies, but “assumes that programs and campaigns will be measured by social science methodologies that will be properly funded by clients/employers” (Noble & Watson, 1999). Perhaps this is easier said than done. 

PR Effectiveness Yardstick Model or Three step yardstick model                                       

Respected US practitioner and researcher, Walter Lindenmann, has proposed an approach to research and evaluation based on three levels of sophistication and depth, rather than the chronological process of communication from planning through implementation to achievement of objectives.
Lindenmann sees level one as evaluation of outputs such as measuring media placements or impressions (total audience reached).
 He terms level two ‘Intermediate’ and describes this level as measuring comprehension, retention, awareness and reception.
Level three is described as ‘Advanced’ and focuses on measuring opinion change, attitude change or, at the highest level, behavioural change.

Level One output evaluation is the low cost, basic level, but even this should be “more detailed than counting up media clippings or using ‘gut reactions’ which are informal judgments lacking any rigour in terms of methodology”, Noble and Watson (1999) explain.

Intermediate measurement criteria in Lindenmann’s PR Effectiveness Yardstick introduce a possible fourth stage of communication – outgrowths, also referred to as out-takes by Michael
Fairchild (as cited in Noble & Watson, 1999, p. 13.). This stage refers to what audiences receive or ‘take out’ of communication activities. Several academics and researchers support identification of this additional stage in communication after inputs and outputs because, before audiences change their opinion, attitudes or behaviour, they first have to receive, retain and understand messages.

They point out that outgrowths or out-takes are cognitive and suggest a different term for behavioural impact.

However, Lindenmann omits inputs as a stage in communication. He splits inputs into his intermediate and advanced levels. Therefore, this model has the advantage of separating cognitive and behavioural impact objectives, but it is not as clear that research should begin before outputs are produced.

Like the Cutlip et al. PII Model, Lindemann’s Effectiveness Yardstick does not specify research methodologies to use. However, in accompanying text he broadly outlines a mix of qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques such as media content analysis at level one; focus groups, interviews with opinion leaders and polling of target groups at level two and, at level three (advanced), he suggests before and after polling, observational methods, psychographic analysis and other social science techniques such as surveys (Noble & Watson, 1999, p. 13).

In presenting his model, Lindenmann (1993) supports the concept of a “cluster of technologies”
(Dozier, 1984) or “menu” of methodologies (Macnamara, 1992) for PR research, saying:

… It is important to recognize that there is no one simplistic method for measuring PR effectiveness. Depending upon which level of effectiveness is required, an array of different tools and techniques is needed to properly assess PR impact.

Pyramid Model of PR Research

A paper titled ‘Evaluation: The Achilles Heel of the public relations profession’, an MA thesis extract published in International Public Relations Review (Macnamara, 1992) and the 1994 International Public Relations Association (IPRA) Gold Paper Number 11 built on the PIIModel, advocating recognition of communication projects and programs in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes and recommended that each stage should be evaluated.

The Pyramid Model of PR Research, a revised version of the Macro Model of PR Evaluation, is intended to be read from the bottom up, the base representing ‘ground zero’ of the strategic planning process, culminating in achievement of a desired outcome (attitudinal or behavioural).
The pyramid metaphor is useful in conveying that, at the base when communication planning begins, practitioners have a large amount of information to assemble and a wide range of options in terms of media and activities. Selections and choices are made to direct certain messages at certain target audiences through certain media and, ultimately, achieve specific defined objectives (the peak of the program or project). The metaphor of a pyramid is also useful to symbolise what I have argued for more than a decade – that is, more research should be done at the beginning and in the early stages of communication than at the end.

In this model, shown in Figure 18, inputs are the strategic and physical components of communication programs or projects such as the choice of medium (eg. event, publication, Web, etc), content (such as text and images), and decisions on format (eg. print or electronic). Outputs are the physical materials and activities produced (ie. media publicity, events, publications, intranets, etc) and the processes to produce them (writing, design, etc). Outcomes are the impacts and effects of communication, both attitudinal and behavioural.
Within the pyramid, key steps in the communication process are shown, borrowing from Cutlipet
al. (1985). However, the Pyramid Model of PR Research goes one step further than most other models discussed in this chapter and endeavours to be instructive and practical by providing a list of suggested measurement methodologies for each stage. The list of methodologies is not exhaustive, but Figure 18 shows a quite extensive list of methods and tools available to practitioners to measure at the various stages.

Of particular note in this model also is the large number of research and evaluation methodologies available to practitioners which are no cost or low cost including:

 Secondary data (ie. existing research) which can be accessed within the organisation (eg. market research, employee surveys, customer complaints data, etc) or externally from the Web, the media, research services such as Lexis-Nexis, academic journals etc;
 Advisory or consultative groups;
 Online ‘chat rooms’ and other informal feedback mechanisms;
 Unstructured and semi-structured interviews;
 Readability tests on copy (eg. Fog Index, Dale-Chall, Flesch Formula, etc);
 Pre-testing (eg. PDF files of proposed publications, mock-ups of Web pages, proposed programs for events, etc);
 Response mechanisms such as 1800 toll free numbers, competitions, or Web visits, downloads, etc from Web statistics.

The Pyramid Model of PR Research is theoretically sound but also practical in that it suggests the highest level and most rigorous measurement possible, but recognises that this will not always be feasible. By identifying a ‘menu’ of evaluation methodologies at the communication practitioner’s disposal from basic to advanced, or what David Dozier (1984) calls a “cluster of technologies”, some evaluation is possible in every program and project. With this approach, there is no excuse for having no research.

Feedback loops are not shown on the Pyramid Model of PR Research, something which Noble and Watson (1999) and Watson and Noble (2005) note, but it is implicit in this model that findings from each stage of research are constantly looped back into planning. Cutlip et al.’s stepped PII model and the Pyramid Model both suggest that you do not proceed to the next step unless you have incorporated formal and informal feedback gathered from the previous step. For instance, if early feedback or formal measurement (such as pre-testing) finds that a selected medium is inappropriate, no practitioner would reasonably proceed to distribution of information using that medium – at least one would hope not.

The Pyramid Model deliberately combines formative and evaluative research in the belief that the two types of research must be integrated and work as a continuum of information gathering and feedback in the communication process, not as separate discrete functions. This fits with the “scientific management of public relations” approach to research recommended by Glen Broom and David Dozier (1990).

Unified Model of Evaluation or Short term and continuing programme model

Drawing on all previously developed and published models, Paul Noble and Tom Watson went on to develop a more sophisticated model which they titled the Unified Model of Evaluation as shown in Figure 21. This attempted to combine the best of other models and produce a definitive approach.
The Unified Evaluation Model identifies four stages in communication by adding Lindenmann’s and Fairchild’s concept of out-takes or outgrowths to the three-stage concept advanced by other models. Noble and Watson prefer to call the four stages or levels Input, Output, Impact and Effect.

This supports inputs and outputs thinking in other models, but separates outcomes into two types: cognitive which they call impact, and behavioural which they term effect.

Recognition of the need for different research methodologies to measure cognitive and behavioural outcomes is important, but it is not certain whether the substitution of terms clarifies or confuses. In many cases, cognitive change such as increased awareness or a change of attitude (which Noble and Watson call impact) can be seen as an effect. Media effects theory (see Gauntlett, 2002; Lull, 2000;  Neuendorf, 2002; Newbold et al., 2002) certainly suggests changes to awareness and attitudes are effects. A case can be made for the terminology used in all models and distinctions may be splitting hairs rather than providing clarification for practitioners.

As with many of the other models, research methodologies are not spelled out in the Unified Model of Evaluation. Noble and Watson (1999) point out that “the research methodology required should be governed by the particular research problem in the particular circumstances that apply.

Consequently, any listing would simply be a collection of likely approaches rather than something of universal applicability”.

All researchers would undoubtedly agree with Noble and Watson’s statement that there are no universally applicable research methodologies. However, by not attempting to list methodologies applicable to various stages of communication, practitioners are left with theoretical frameworks and a lack of practical information on what they can do to implement the theory.

 The second paper ends here with five questions of comprehension. Ab aap log kafi hushiyaar ho to aap ye 5 swal aasani se kr skte ho so mujhe smjhane ki zarurat nahi.

Analysis of IInd paper UGC NET Dec 2013 ends here.

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