Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Final analysis of UGC NET Dec. 2013 IInd paper Que 36- 45

36. Identify the correct sequence of marketing approach in relation to advertising and public relations.

(A) Product knowledge, prospecting, approach decision, establishing needs
(B) Establishing needs, product knowledge, approach decision, prospecting
(C) Prospecting, establishing needs, approach decision, product knowledge.
(D) Approach decision, prospecting, product knowledge, establishing needs.

Answer:- A

These are step wise.

1. Firstly you should have the product knowledge. What you want to sell? What your product is?
An understanding of a good or service that might include having acquired information about its application, function, features, use and support requirements. A business sales representative is an example of an individual that is typically expected to acquire considerable product knowledge about the goods and services that they are responsible for selling to consumers.

2. Then is prospecting which means the search for potential customers or buyers. You have to search customers for your product in order to sell.

3. Then the decision to approach to the customer in order to demonstrate your product and sell it to him/her.

4. Then the final step is establishing needs. The organization that can understand why customers make decisions such as such as who buys, what they buy and how they buy will, by catering more closely for customers satisfaction and needs, become potentially more successful.

37. The correct sequence in the communication process is
(A) Selection, attention, perception, retention
(B) Attention, selection, retention, perception
(C) Selection, retention, perception, attention
(D) Perception, attention, selection, retention

Answer:- D

Consider a smoker. He has a perception of smoking and various smoking brands. When he watches advertisement about cigarettes on Television then he give them attention. Various brands are advertised and he remind and select some good brands and then go to a shop and there a problem occurs. He remember only one brand (retention) and buy it. In this cycle the communication process occurs. So option D is correct.

38. Identify the correct sequence of the following statutes:

(A) The Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Telegraph Act, the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Post Office Act.
(B) The Indian Post Office Act, the Indian Telegraph Act, the Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Penal Code
(C) The Indian Telegraph Act, the Indian Post Office Act, the Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Penal Code
(D) The Indian Penal Code, the Press and Registration of Books Act, the Indian Telegraph Act, the Indian Post Office Act

Answer:- D

Indian Penal Code (IPC, Hindi: भारतीय दण्ड संहिता) is the main criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code, intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. It was drafted in 1860 and came into force in British India during the early British Raj period in 1862.

The publication of newspapers is regulated primarily by the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867. The Act seeks to regulate the operation of printing presses and newspapers and registration and preservation of copies of such newspapers.

The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 is a law in India that governs the use of telegraphy, phones, communication, radio, telex and fax in India. It gives the Government of India exclusive privileges of establishing, maintaining and working telegraphs. It also authorizes the government to tap phone lines under appropriate conditions. The act came into force on October 1, 1885.

In 1866 the Post Office Act was enacted which was subsequently amended by Act III of 1882 and Act XVI of 1896.

39. Identify the correct sequence of chronological order of the following newspapers that were launched during freedom movement:

(A) Bombay Herald, Madras Courier, Madras Gazette, Asiatic Mirror
(B) Asiatic Mirror, Bombay Herald, Madras Courier, Madras Gazette
(C) Madras Courier, Bombay Herald, Asiatic Mirror, Madras Gazette
(D) Madras Gazette, Madras Courier, Bombay Herald, Asiatic Mirror

Answer:- C

1785
Madras Courier
English
Madras
British India
Published weekly at first from 1785-10-12 to around 1818, with government sanction. Its proprietor was Richard Johnson.
1789
Bombay Herald
English
Bombay
British India
Published weekly from 1789 to 1792. Its proprietors are unknown.
1788
The Asiatic Mirror and Commercial Advertiser
English
Calcutta
British India
Published weekly at first from 1788-02 to 1820-05. Its proprietors were C.K. Bruce and Dr. Shoolbred.


Madras Gazette
Published in Madras: 1 January - 28 February 1795

Here it’s masthead:-

Madras Gazette


Madras Courier newspaper:-



Asiatic mirror masthead:-


The Asiatic Mirror




40. Identify the correct sequence of sales steps a PR person should know.
(A) Creation of confidence, Interest, attention, selling the product
(B) Selling the product, attention, interest, creation of confidence
(C) Attention, selling the product, interest, creation of confidence
(D) Attention, Interest, creation of confidence, selling the product

Answer: - D

It is an easy question.

A Public Relation person first gain attraction of its customers towards his/her product by advertising and then creates interest of the customers in that product. Then he will create confidence in them of buying that product and finally sell it to them.

For example:- Hum ek surf kharidna chahte hain to hum tv pe surf ki ads ke taraf dhyan dete hain. Dheere dheere unme se ek ad. Me hamara interest bn jata hai. Fir ad. Aapne dekhe he hai d”daag gayab” , “daag ache lgte hain”, “safai dhinchak”. Ye sb use kiye jate hain taki company wale hum customer log mein ek confidence paida kar sken ki definitely I will help us and then finally hum unke jaal me gir kar o product kharid lete hain.


41. Match List – I with List – II:
 List – I                           List – II
 (Name)                          (Area)

a. Volney B. Palmer       1. New Journalism
b. Tim Berners-Lee        2. Advertising
c. Joseph Pulitzer            3. Web
d. D.W. Griffith              4. Film

 Codes :
       a        b        c        d
(A) 2        3        1        4
(B) 3        2        1        4
(C) 4        3        1        2
(D) 3        2        4        1

Answer:- A

Volney B. Palmer opened the first American advertising agency, in Philadelphia in 1850. This agency placed ads produced by its clients in various newspapers.

Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as "TimBL", is a British computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.

Joseph Pulitzer (April 10, 1847 – October 29, 1911), born Pulitzer József, was a Hungarian-American Jewish newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World. Pulitzer introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s.

David Llewelyn Wark "D. W." Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director, mostly remembered as the director of the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation and the subsequent film Intolerance (1916).

42. Match List – I with List – II:
 List – I                         List – II
(Concept)                     (Author)

a. W.W. Rostow          1. Entropy
b. Shannon &               2. Evolutionary Perspective
    Weaver
c. Marshal                    3. Growth theory
   McLuhan
d. Herbert Spencer       4. Medium is the message


Codes :
       a          b         c         d
(A) 3          1         4         2
(B) 1          4         2         3
(C) 2          3         1         4
(D) 2          3         4         1

Answer:- A

Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was a United States economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966–69.
Rostow is known for his book The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960), which was used in several fields of social science.

The Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models." It embodies the concepts of information source, message, transmitter, signal, channel, noise, receiver, information destination, probability of error, encoding, decoding, information rate, channel capacity, etc. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of "information theory."

"The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in the message, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived.

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies.
Spencer first articulated his evolutionary perspective in his essay, 'Progress: Its Law and Cause', published in Chapman's Westminster Review in 1857, and which later formed the basis of the First Principles of a New System of Philosophy (1862).


43. Match List – I with List – II:
 List – I                                                                 List – II
 (Book)                                                                 (Author)

a. Crystallizing Public Opinion                            1. Sandra Oliver
                                    
b. The Power of Corporate Communication        2. Edward L. Bernays

c. Effective public relations                                  3. Scott M.Cutlip

d. Public Relations Strategy                                 4. Paul A. Argenti

                                             
Codes :
       a       b       c      d
(A) 4       2       3      1
(B) 3       2       1      4
(C) 2       4       3      1
(D) 1       3      2       4

Answer:- C

EDWARD BERNAYS was a press agent and public relations consultant to many clients, including Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Calvin Coolidge, the American Tobacco Company, General Electric, Alcoa, the American Dental Association, Dodge Motors, the NAACP, and many others. In 1923 wrote Crystallizing Public Relations, which provided principles and practices for an emerging profession. At New York University, he taught the first college course in public relations.

The Power of Corporate Communication: Crafting the Voice and Image of Your Business  
by Paul Argenti (Author), Janis Forman (Author)

Scott Munson Cutlip (July 15, 1915 in Buckhannon, West Virginia - August 18, 2000 in Madison, Wisconsin) was a pioneer in public relations education. In 1952 he co-wrote the first edition of Effective Public Relations with Allen H. Center.

Public Relations Strategy A book by
Sandra M Oliver (Author)


44. Match List – I with List – II :

  List – I                                    List – II
(Director)                                  (Film)

a. Ketan Mehta                    1. Jaane Bhi Do Yaaron
b. Kundan Shah                   2. Aarth
c. Mahesh Bhatt                   3. Parinda
d. Vidhu Vinod  Chopra      4. Mirch Masala
                            

             
Codes :
       a      b      c      d
(A) 4      1      2      3
(B) 1      2      4      3
(C) 4      2      3      1
(D) 3      4      2      1

Answer:- A

Mirch Masala (Spices in English) is a 1987 Hindi film directed by Ketan Mehta.

Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro (Devnagari: जाने भी दो यारों, English: Just Let It Go, Friends) is a 1983 Hindi film directed by Kundan Shah and produced by NFDC. It is a dark satire on the rampant corruption in Indian politics, bureaucracy, news media and business, and stars an ensemble cast that includes the likes of Naseeruddin Shah, Ravi Baswani, Om Puri, Pankaj Kapur, Satish Shah, Satish Kaushik, Bhakti Barve and Neena Gupta.

Arth (Hindi: अर्थ, in Meaning) is a 1982 film directed by Mahesh Bhatt, starring Shabana Azmi, Kulbhushan Kharbanda, Smita Patil, Raj Kiran and Rohini Hattangadi. It features a memorable soundtrack by Ghazal duo, Jagjit Singh and Chitra Singh.

Parinda (Hindi: परिंदा, English: The Bird) is an award-winning 1989 Indian crime drama film directed and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. It is considered by many to be the turning point in reality in Hindi cinema, as the theme of the film discusses the real life of Indian underworld gangsters and the general life of residents in the city of Mumbai. The film stars Jackie Shroff, Anil Kapoor, Nana Patekar and Madhuri Dixit in the lead roles. It won two National Film Awards and five Filmfare Awards, and was India's official entry for the 1990 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.The movie was titled Kabutarkhana but later changed and release as Parinda.


45. Match List – I with List – II :

List – I                                                                               List – II
(Author)                                                                            (Models)

a. Preparation, Implementation, Impact Model              1. Lindermann

b. Three step yardstick model                                        2. Watson & Noble

c. Pyramid Model                                                           3. Cutlip, Center & Broom

d. Short term and continuing programme model            4. McNamara

Codes :
         a       b      c       d
(A)   2       4       1      3
(B)   3       2       4      1
(C)   4       1       2      3
(D)   3       1      4       2

Answer: - D

We will study this in detail: -

Preparation, Implementation, Impact Model       

Cutlip, Center and Broom’s PII Model, outlined in their widely used text, Effective Public
Relations, takes its name from three levels of research which they term “preparation, implementation and impact”.

Specific research questions arise at each step in the PII Model, illustrated in Figure below. Answering these questions with research contributes to increased understanding and adds information for assessing effectiveness. Noble and Watson (1999) explain: “The bottom rung (step) of preparation evaluation assesses the information and strategic planning; implementation evaluation considers tactics and effort; while impact evaluation gives feedback on the outcome”.

A noteworthy and pioneering element of the PII Model was the separation of outputs from impact or outcomes and identification that these different stages need to be researched with different methods. Also, identification of the steps of communication – and, therefore, what should be measured at each stage or level – is useful in guiding practitioners.

However, the PII Model does not prescribe methodologies, but “assumes that programs and campaigns will be measured by social science methodologies that will be properly funded by clients/employers” (Noble & Watson, 1999). Perhaps this is easier said than done. 



PR Effectiveness Yardstick Model or Three step yardstick model                                       

Respected US practitioner and researcher, Walter Lindenmann, has proposed an approach to research and evaluation based on three levels of sophistication and depth, rather than the chronological process of communication from planning through implementation to achievement of objectives.
Lindenmann sees level one as evaluation of outputs such as measuring media placements or impressions (total audience reached).
 He terms level two ‘Intermediate’ and describes this level as measuring comprehension, retention, awareness and reception.
Level three is described as ‘Advanced’ and focuses on measuring opinion change, attitude change or, at the highest level, behavioural change.

Level One output evaluation is the low cost, basic level, but even this should be “more detailed than counting up media clippings or using ‘gut reactions’ which are informal judgments lacking any rigour in terms of methodology”, Noble and Watson (1999) explain.

Intermediate measurement criteria in Lindenmann’s PR Effectiveness Yardstick introduce a possible fourth stage of communication – outgrowths, also referred to as out-takes by Michael
Fairchild (as cited in Noble & Watson, 1999, p. 13.). This stage refers to what audiences receive or ‘take out’ of communication activities. Several academics and researchers support identification of this additional stage in communication after inputs and outputs because, before audiences change their opinion, attitudes or behaviour, they first have to receive, retain and understand messages.

They point out that outgrowths or out-takes are cognitive and suggest a different term for behavioural impact.

However, Lindenmann omits inputs as a stage in communication. He splits inputs into his intermediate and advanced levels. Therefore, this model has the advantage of separating cognitive and behavioural impact objectives, but it is not as clear that research should begin before outputs are produced.

Like the Cutlip et al. PII Model, Lindemann’s Effectiveness Yardstick does not specify research methodologies to use. However, in accompanying text he broadly outlines a mix of qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques such as media content analysis at level one; focus groups, interviews with opinion leaders and polling of target groups at level two and, at level three (advanced), he suggests before and after polling, observational methods, psychographic analysis and other social science techniques such as surveys (Noble & Watson, 1999, p. 13).

In presenting his model, Lindenmann (1993) supports the concept of a “cluster of technologies”
(Dozier, 1984) or “menu” of methodologies (Macnamara, 1992) for PR research, saying:

… It is important to recognize that there is no one simplistic method for measuring PR effectiveness. Depending upon which level of effectiveness is required, an array of different tools and techniques is needed to properly assess PR impact.





Pyramid Model of PR Research

A paper titled ‘Evaluation: The Achilles Heel of the public relations profession’, an MA thesis extract published in International Public Relations Review (Macnamara, 1992) and the 1994 International Public Relations Association (IPRA) Gold Paper Number 11 built on the PIIModel, advocating recognition of communication projects and programs in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes and recommended that each stage should be evaluated.

The Pyramid Model of PR Research, a revised version of the Macro Model of PR Evaluation, is intended to be read from the bottom up, the base representing ‘ground zero’ of the strategic planning process, culminating in achievement of a desired outcome (attitudinal or behavioural).
The pyramid metaphor is useful in conveying that, at the base when communication planning begins, practitioners have a large amount of information to assemble and a wide range of options in terms of media and activities. Selections and choices are made to direct certain messages at certain target audiences through certain media and, ultimately, achieve specific defined objectives (the peak of the program or project). The metaphor of a pyramid is also useful to symbolise what I have argued for more than a decade – that is, more research should be done at the beginning and in the early stages of communication than at the end.

In this model, shown in Figure 18, inputs are the strategic and physical components of communication programs or projects such as the choice of medium (eg. event, publication, Web, etc), content (such as text and images), and decisions on format (eg. print or electronic). Outputs are the physical materials and activities produced (ie. media publicity, events, publications, intranets, etc) and the processes to produce them (writing, design, etc). Outcomes are the impacts and effects of communication, both attitudinal and behavioural.
Within the pyramid, key steps in the communication process are shown, borrowing from Cutlipet
al. (1985). However, the Pyramid Model of PR Research goes one step further than most other models discussed in this chapter and endeavours to be instructive and practical by providing a list of suggested measurement methodologies for each stage. The list of methodologies is not exhaustive, but Figure 18 shows a quite extensive list of methods and tools available to practitioners to measure at the various stages.

Of particular note in this model also is the large number of research and evaluation methodologies available to practitioners which are no cost or low cost including:

 Secondary data (ie. existing research) which can be accessed within the organisation (eg. market research, employee surveys, customer complaints data, etc) or externally from the Web, the media, research services such as Lexis-Nexis, academic journals etc;
 Advisory or consultative groups;
 Online ‘chat rooms’ and other informal feedback mechanisms;
 Unstructured and semi-structured interviews;
 Readability tests on copy (eg. Fog Index, Dale-Chall, Flesch Formula, etc);
 Pre-testing (eg. PDF files of proposed publications, mock-ups of Web pages, proposed programs for events, etc);
 Response mechanisms such as 1800 toll free numbers, competitions, or Web visits, downloads, etc from Web statistics.

The Pyramid Model of PR Research is theoretically sound but also practical in that it suggests the highest level and most rigorous measurement possible, but recognises that this will not always be feasible. By identifying a ‘menu’ of evaluation methodologies at the communication practitioner’s disposal from basic to advanced, or what David Dozier (1984) calls a “cluster of technologies”, some evaluation is possible in every program and project. With this approach, there is no excuse for having no research.

Feedback loops are not shown on the Pyramid Model of PR Research, something which Noble and Watson (1999) and Watson and Noble (2005) note, but it is implicit in this model that findings from each stage of research are constantly looped back into planning. Cutlip et al.’s stepped PII model and the Pyramid Model both suggest that you do not proceed to the next step unless you have incorporated formal and informal feedback gathered from the previous step. For instance, if early feedback or formal measurement (such as pre-testing) finds that a selected medium is inappropriate, no practitioner would reasonably proceed to distribution of information using that medium – at least one would hope not.

The Pyramid Model deliberately combines formative and evaluative research in the belief that the two types of research must be integrated and work as a continuum of information gathering and feedback in the communication process, not as separate discrete functions. This fits with the “scientific management of public relations” approach to research recommended by Glen Broom and David Dozier (1990).



Unified Model of Evaluation or Short term and continuing programme model

Drawing on all previously developed and published models, Paul Noble and Tom Watson went on to develop a more sophisticated model which they titled the Unified Model of Evaluation as shown in Figure 21. This attempted to combine the best of other models and produce a definitive approach.
The Unified Evaluation Model identifies four stages in communication by adding Lindenmann’s and Fairchild’s concept of out-takes or outgrowths to the three-stage concept advanced by other models. Noble and Watson prefer to call the four stages or levels Input, Output, Impact and Effect.

This supports inputs and outputs thinking in other models, but separates outcomes into two types: cognitive which they call impact, and behavioural which they term effect.

Recognition of the need for different research methodologies to measure cognitive and behavioural outcomes is important, but it is not certain whether the substitution of terms clarifies or confuses. In many cases, cognitive change such as increased awareness or a change of attitude (which Noble and Watson call impact) can be seen as an effect. Media effects theory (see Gauntlett, 2002; Lull, 2000;  Neuendorf, 2002; Newbold et al., 2002) certainly suggests changes to awareness and attitudes are effects. A case can be made for the terminology used in all models and distinctions may be splitting hairs rather than providing clarification for practitioners.

As with many of the other models, research methodologies are not spelled out in the Unified Model of Evaluation. Noble and Watson (1999) point out that “the research methodology required should be governed by the particular research problem in the particular circumstances that apply.

Consequently, any listing would simply be a collection of likely approaches rather than something of universal applicability”.

All researchers would undoubtedly agree with Noble and Watson’s statement that there are no universally applicable research methodologies. However, by not attempting to list methodologies applicable to various stages of communication, practitioners are left with theoretical frameworks and a lack of practical information on what they can do to implement the theory.


 The second paper ends here with five questions of comprehension. Ab aap log kafi hushiyaar ho to aap ye 5 swal aasani se kr skte ho so mujhe smjhane ki zarurat nahi.

Analysis of IInd paper UGC NET Dec 2013 ends here.


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2 comments:

  1. Thanks a lot man, can you please provide me answer keys of net exams 2009-2011
    And some question paper like net june15, dec14, june13??

    ReplyDelete