Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Intrapersonal Communication and related theories

Intrapersonal communication is one-way communication. 

Individual contemplation, internal reflection, prayers, etc. are types of intrapersonal communication. This type can also be termed as a form of internal persuasion. There are two types of messages, nonverbal and verbal. Examples of nonverbal communication are facial expressions, posture, gestures, tone of voice, touching, spacing and systematic use of time. Verbal communication can be divided into three disciplines; syntactics,semantics, and pragmatics.

In the persuasion context, one person is attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or  behavior in one other person. 

For example: Jane persuading her sister Sarah to lend her pearls for Jane school party.

In the persuasion context, there are various theories that explain internal communication : 

Balance Theory

This theory advocated by Fritz Heider and Theodore Newcomb in 1946 states that when tensions arise between or inside people, they attempt to reduce these tensions through self-persuasion or trying to persuade others.

               Balance theory proposes that there are three ways in which a person can feel balance. First the source and receiver can both dislike as well as like each other, so they experience comfort and balance. Second, the source and receiver can have a positive attitude toward an object or idea and display positive feelings toward one another, therefore experiencing comfort and balance. Third, the source and the receiver can disagree about an idea or object and also dislike each other, therefore experiencing comfort because they know that they disagree about the values of certain objects or ideas.

                 Example: Mary likes to do things in a planned, orderly manner and Joe does not like orderliness in everything.Yet Mary likes Adam, and values their relationship therefore this system is now in imbalance. If Mary would change her attitude about orderliness in everything, this system would be in balance.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

 This theory propagated by Leon Festinger in 1962 says that human beings often have conflicting beliefs with actions they take, or other beliefs they have. This dissonance creates a tension and tension reduction is automatically sought by changing our evaluations by some degree. Cognitive Dissonance is when you have two good choices and you make your decision then you find yourself unsure or in doubt about the choice you made. 

         The theory of Cognitive Dissonance implies that when there is tension we change a belief or an action. Many times selective exposure is used which prevents dissonance. This theory also implies that we experience more dissonance when the issue is more important, when we put off a decision and the decision is permanent.

                 Example: When marketers want to persuade their audience to buy a product they must convince them that this is a good action and if their beliefs do not match this action, they must persuade them to change their beliefs. For instance if a health drink is introduced in the market, and some consumers feel that it is really not essential that they switch over to the new product from their usual cereal, the advertisers will have to focus on the fact the health drink contains health benefits such as cholesterol fighting, fat reducing ingredients that their usual cereal lacks.

Information Manipulation Theory (IMT)

 Theorist Steve A. McCornack  propounded this theory in 1992. This states that a speaker  purposefully and covertly violates one of the conversational maxims of quantity, quality, relationand manner with the intention of deceiving his/her listener.

                Example:  X has an important school project due Wednesday. His professor does not accept late papers.Monday night he went to the soccer match and didn't start on the paper. Tuesday night he browsed the net for information related to the project and managed to almost finish the project. 

Wednesday morning, X overslept and arrived only after class was over. He goes to see his professor immediately after. How will he answer his professor on why he wasn't in class to turn in his paper?Quantity: "I am sorry professor. I overslept."Quality: "Our power got cut and my alarm didn't go off."Relation: "I've had a really bad week. I had a fight with my roommate, I forgot to pay the electricity bill, the electricity was turned off and my boss has threatened to fire me if Iâm late again."Manner: "I badly need to score well in this project. My paper was already finished, I just overslept".

The Inoculation Theory (1961) 

by William McGuire
states that inoculation is used to describe the attribution of greater resistance to individuals or the process of supplying information to receivers before the communication process takes place in the hope that the information would make the receiver more resistant.

             This theory stresses on the importance of the nature of the presentation of the message. One method involves passive reading in which receivers read the defensive material.Another method is to read the material and underline the passages relating to the arguments presented in the defense.

       Next, experimenters supply an outline where the defensive material is to be written out. The last method is to write out the arguments without any help.

        Example: McGuire's basic method included constructing a persuasive message attacking a cultural truism such as, An apple a day, keeps the doctor away. This message would contain statements like eating too many apples can cause digestive problems. Prior to this message, material would be introduced that should strengthen the belief in the truism.

Rank's Model of Persuasion , 1976

 (Theorist: Hugh Rank) states that persuaders use two major strategies to achieve their goals. These strategies are nicely set into two main schemas known as 
(1) intensify , and 
(2) downplay

 The persuader will do this in one of four methods.
1) Intensify their own strong points.
2) Intensify the weak points of the opposition.
3) Downplay their own weak points.
4) Downplay the strong points of the opposition.

          Example: While arguing about their favorite movies, Damien continues to insist to Joey that the Terminator movies were much better than the Matrix movies. Rank's Model contends that Damien will use one of four main strategies to argue his point to Joey. 

He will either:

1) Stress the great performances that were given by Terminator lead actor Arnold Schwarzeneger,while pointing out the acclaim that he received for the movies, OR 

2) Stress what he believed was poor acting by Matrix lead actor Keanu Reeves, OR 

3) Downplay the weak points of the Terminator movies, OR 

4) Downplay the terrific performance by the Matrix actors

Monday, May 29, 2017

Sunday, April 30, 2017

Sunday, December 18, 2016

History of Photography

Although humans have been using sculptures and paintings for thousands of years to uncover santiran of what he saw, but the idea to look at this new mechanical began in the 18th century, when scientists became interested by a device fashioned half-scientifically known as obskura camera. It is a small room, dark except for the light coming through the lens in a small hole in satudinding. The people in the room to see the sights of nature sunlit outside, which is projected on the wall opposite. But this santiran moment; when the light outside fades, santiran disappeared.
camera Obscura
camera Obscura
Efforts to capture and retain santiran-santiran is what produces photography. The first experiments were made with metal plates coated with various solutions of silver.These chemicals slowly break down when exposed to light. If the plate thus prepared was placed in a dark box (small form obskura camera) and mounted in front of a landscape or in front of an object, slowly dim shape of the object would appear on the plate. From the beginning are still raw is the arrival of a series of improvements in the photoreceptors, the chemicals and the camera; some of the important things is illustrated by the ancient historic photography shown on the following pages.
image005.jpgThe world's first photograph made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niepce from a window at his farm house in France. For the "movie" Niepce using a mixture of tin plate dipekakan and he got an idea to escape from the roof tops that described above.These photos are usually fixed so obvious but this version as what it actually is.
Below is the result of the shooting has been repaired. Image of a Set Table is made Niepce in 1827


Silver plated copper plate with silver jodida record santiran a street in Paris. In artificial daguerreotipe LJM Daguerre in 1839, there are the first person ever photographed - someone who was told that his shoes cleaned (front right). The road was busy but this person just long enough in place, so look for lighting by five minutes.
Important Experiments on Copper
The first successful attempt at capturing santiran vision was performed in France in 1830 by Nicéphore Niepce, an inventor, and Louis JM Daguerre, a stage designer.Actually Niepcelah people who feel honored to make the first photograph in the world.But Daguerre was the person who started photography by imposing mercury vapor on a copper plate sensitive to bring up santiran much sharper than ever can be made in advance people. Although no copies can be made from a picture of it, daguerreotipe is highly profitable and made wealthy inventor.
image011.jpgDaguerre IN DAGUERREOTIPE
First Film of Paper
At the same time an Englishman, Fox Talbot, was making "movies" findings in the form of silver chloride coated paper. The result is a negative paper that can reproduce much mold with pressed on sensitized paper and let it penetrated by sunlight.
In a photograph made in 1845 is Fox Talbot in advance laboratory studio showcase the efficacy of this discovery can process paper (from left) Talbot middle photograph (reproduction) painting, photographing people sitting amid Talbot, Talbot is printing using the "movie paper" was on shelf in the sunlight and Talbot when memmotret sculpture.
Better Results with Glass Wet
Daguerreotipe and paper negatives Talbot forgotten by the year 1860 after the introduction of the film from the glass plate is chemically treated. Glass is an excellent base for sensitive chemical emulsion because completely transparent and does not impede the passage of light, allowing the bright and sharp prints. Problems attach emulsion onto the glass broken by an Englishman, Scott Archer, 1851. He used a sticky liquid called kolodium. Wet plates had to be prepared, exposed and washed in place, before the emulsion dries sensitivity. This process is a hassle, but it is good enough so that the photographer is eager to carry heavy equipment around the world.Two pioneers such is William H. Jackson, who photographed the American West Region, and an Englishman, Roger Fenton, the ancient war photographer.
At the top of Glacier Point, in what is now Yosemite National Park, California, Jackson set the wet plate camera for photographing landscapes. Between 1866 and 1879 he was wandering in the Western District of America, and create thousands of photos. His photographs are very popular and influential landscape shots to persuade the US Congress to create national parks across America
In the Western District American, William H. Jackson working with wet plates in a dark room, a tent near the railroad tracks in Utah. He photographed train crew in exchange for a free ride.
The tools is needed to create an image on a wet plate. Glass plates clamped (left) to be cleaned and digilapkan. Kolodium sticky poured on the glass, which is then dipped in a bath plate (tengoh), the plate gets a layer of silver nitrate solution. The plate is placed in a container (depon) that can be inserted in the camera (belohang, right) without touching the surface Iengketnya on sesuatu.Sesudah lighting, a pistol butt (right) used to soak the plate in the washing liquid. The weight of all this equipment can mcncapai 50 kilograms.
Photographer WAR CREAM
Roger Fenton was a British lawyer who with his assistants carry a photo-lab-this traveling to the Crimea in 1855. In the carriage, Fenton store five cameras, 700 glass plates, and boxes of chemicals, as well as sleeping tents, and food. He explored the campsite and battlefields. He often stopped by British troops who insisted that they were photographed.
Dry Plates miracle
Experiments were struggling fiercely with the wet plate portraits ended in 1876 with the arrival of the dry plate - square glass as before, but this time the sensitivity emulsion layer gelatin detained by fast drying. Formula gelatin dikernbangkan first in 1871 by an English physician, Richard L. Maddox. Unless plates can be prepared beforehand, gelatin itself increase the sensitivity to 60 times faster than the first wet plate. Now, for the first time, the action can be "terminated" with a fast exposure time.The new plate was immediately rnenimbulkan dalarn change camera model. Until that time, photographs are made by removing the lens cap on the camera, because the lighting is measured ticking or bermenit; and "movie" is very slow so as not to catch sight of the photographer the finger. Now, with the faster plate, cover mechanically complex required to enter a glimpse of light through the lens. Photos of dramatic new action soon follow. Eadweard Muybridge made a vital study of locomotion, reducing the exposure to a fraction of a second. The pictures he made the first time lets people see how they actually move.
Muybridge made a study of motion in several ways. In the two series above it synchronizing front and rear view of the girl walking. In three series under he uses three cameras to various views of a girl who threw a handkerchief. This motion study invaluable means for artists and doctors who teach disabled people walk. Muybridge first worked with wet plate. Only after wearing dry plates faster, he developed the technique of stop-motion that made him famous - and notorious, because a lot of the circuit in the form of the nude
A row LENS
A camera lens 12 was designed by Muybridge to make successive images as complicated as on the opposite page. Pickers snapped in succession, each disputing a split second. What appear to be the lens 13 (left) is actually a lens that controls pemumpun pumpun all other lenses.
To shoot the girl who threw the handkerchief on the image side, three lens camera aiming Muybridge 12 -one from the side, one of the front corner and one from the back corner. Pickers are synchronized so that the lens-lens work in unison. These three images above each is an image taken by a fourth lens on each camera. Saw the round view of the movement of the girl.
Photography for Everyone
The invention of roll film and the camera box object carried in the hand that is easy to use open fields for amateur photography. A man named George Eastman is a core force in the renewal of this flagrant. As an entrepreneur dry plates in Rochester, New York, Eastman began to question why breakable glass plates and the weight can not be replaced with something better. Is not just a glass pedestal emulsion? Why not use a flexible material, something that can be rolled up on a piston and a camera placed in such a way that one can order each time was exposed? In 1889, Henry M. Reichenbach, an Eastman employee had perfected such emulsions pedestal, made of a mixture of nitrocellulose and wood alcohol. The discovery turned out to be so successful that it is used all over the world until the 1930s - when a material which is not so flammable, cellulose acetate, replace it. Meanwhile, Eastman enhance the film reels and cameras that contain it - Kodak. Everything is contained in this first Kodak unique, including its name, composed by Eastman. Kodak is a superior simplicity shortening the photographic process into two easy steps: see objects through reconnaissance and massaging pickers. The camera is small and light; berpumpun lens can capture everything clearly within three meters. Film installed at the factory and after 100 times the camera scene were sent to the Eastman Company, where the film was washed, printed and returned with a camera that has been filled again. Kodak was appalling - millions and millions sold worldwide: Eastman motto "You push the button, then submit it to us," became an international byword, so even appeared in Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, Utopia, Unlimited, in 1893.
image031.jpg          image029.jpg
Kodak original inner mechanism released above this ideal for roll film newly discovered. This film can be used for 100 photos; The new order can be placed into position by hand after each round lighting. Cover photo round eliminates edge tends to become blurred. On the right side, George Eastman, on the boat, pointing the new discovery while a friend took a picture with other Kodak.
Kodak perpetuate nearly every view, as seen in the photographs from the 1890's.Travelers equip itself with Kodak and snapped whatever the natives while photographing tourists. Everywhere people capture on film what they see his eyes.
The start of Color Photography
It is surprising that some of the works have been created colored since a century ago.At that time James Clerk Maxwell of Scotland demonstrated that color photos can be created by breaking an object into the three primary colors - red, green and blue - with filters. What a pity that the system requires three separate photos, each of which reveals a color. New in 1904 one finds a color system that is reliable, and only using one camera. This is achieved in France by the Lumiere brothers to the process that they call autokrom. The secret is in the "movies" they are in the form of a glass plate coated with microscopic starch grains, each of which is colored red, green or blue. The idea of ​​inserting particles divergent color into the film itself is still being followed until today.
The first color photograph was simply a ceramic tile
Photo above ceramic tiles made by cousin Nicéphore Niepce in 1867. "Movies" it is a silver plate which can be colored dipekakan particular under the influence of sunlight.

AUTHOR: Teddy K Wirakusumah

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

Sociological media theories

Three main sociological perspectives on the role of media exist: the limited‐effects theory, the class‐dominant theory, and the culturalist theory.

Limited-effects theory

The limited‐effects theory argues that because people generally choose what to watch or read based on what they already believe, media exerts a negligible influence. This theory originated and was tested in the 1940s and 1950s. Studies that examined the ability of media to influence voting found that well‐informed people relied more on personal experience, prior knowledge, and their own reasoning. However, media “experts” more likely swayed those who were less informed. Critics point to two problems with this perspective. 

First, they claim that limited‐effects theory ignores the media's role in framing and limiting the discussion and debate of issues. How media frames the debate and what questions members of the media ask change the outcome of the discussion and the possible conclusions people may draw. Second, this theory came into existence when the availability and dominance of media was far less widespread. 

Class-dominant theory

The class‐dominant theory argues that the media reflects and projects the view of a minority elite, which controls it. Those people who own and control the corporations that produce media comprise this elite. Advocates of this view concern themselves particularly with massive corporate mergers of media organizations, which limit competition and put big business at the reins of media—especially news media. Their concern is that when ownership is restricted, a few people then have the ability to manipulate what people can see or hear. For example, owners can easily avoid or silence stories that expose unethical corporate behavior or hold corporations responsible for their actions.

The issue of sponsorship adds to this problem. Advertising dollars fund most media. Networks aim programming at the largest possible audience because the broader the appeal, the greater the potential purchasing audience and the easier selling air time to advertisers becomes. Thus, news organizations may shy away from negative stories about corporations (especially parent corporations) that finance large advertising campaigns in their newspaper or on their stations. Television networks receiving millions of dollars in advertising from companies like Nike and other textile manufacturers were slow to run stories on their news shows about possible human‐rights violations by these companies in foreign countries. Media watchers identify the same problem at the local level where city newspapers will not give new cars poor reviews or run stories on selling a home without an agent because the majority of their funding comes from auto and real estate advertising. This influence also extends to programming. In the 1990s a network cancelled a short‐run drama with clear religious sentiments, Christy,because, although highly popular and beloved in rural America, the program did not rate well among young city dwellers that advertisers were targeting in ads.

Critics of this theory counter these arguments by saying that local control of news media largely lies beyond the reach of large corporate offices elsewhere, and that the quality of news depends upon good journalists. They contend that those less powerful and not in control of media have often received full media coverage and subsequent support. As examples they name numerous environmental causes, the anti‐nuclear movement, the anti‐Vietnam movement, and the pro‐Gulf War movement.

While most people argue that a corporate elite controls media, a variation on this approach argues that a politically “liberal” elite controls media. They point to the fact that journalists, being more highly educated than the general population, hold more liberal political views, consider themselves “left of center,” and are more likely to register as Democrats. They further point to examples from the media itself and the statistical reality that the media more often labels conservative commentators or politicians as “conservative” than liberals as “liberal.”

Media language can be revealing, too. Media uses the terms “arch” or “ultra” conservative, but rarely or never the terms “arch” or “ultra” liberal. Those who argue that a political elite controls media also point out that the movements that have gained media attention—the environment, anti‐nuclear, and anti‐Vietnam—generally support liberal political issues. Predominantly conservative political issues have yet to gain prominent media attention, or have been opposed by the media. Advocates of this view point to the Strategic Arms Initiative of the 1980s Reagan administration. Media quickly characterized the defense program as “Star Wars,” linking it to an expensive fantasy. The public failed to support it, and the program did not get funding or congressional support.

Culturalist theory

The culturalist theory, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, combines the other two theories and claims that people interact with media to create their own meanings out of the images and messages they receive. This theory sees audiences as playing an active rather than passive role in relation to mass media. One strand of research focuses on the audiences and how they interact with media; the other strand of research focuses on those who produce the media, particularly the news.

Theorists emphasize that audiences choose what to watch among a wide range of options, choose how much to watch, and may choose the mute button or the VCR remote over the programming selected by the network or cable station. Studies of mass media done by sociologists parallel text‐reading and interpretation research completed by linguists (people who study language). Both groups of researchers find that when people approach material, whether written text or media images and messages, they interpret that material based on their own knowledge and experience. 

Thus, when researchers ask different groups to explain the meaning of a particular song or video, the groups produce widely divergent interpretations based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, and religious background. Therefore, culturalist theorists claim that, while a few elite in large corporations may exert significant control over what information media produces and distributes, personal perspective plays a more powerful role in how the audience members interpret those messages.