Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Analysis of UGC NET July 2016 PAPER II Questions 1 to 20 In Depth Analysis

UGC NET July 2016

PAPER II

1.     Embedded Journalism is considered as a type of_____

                    Right answer is military offensive      

                      Embedded journalism refers to news reporters being attached to military units involved in armed conflicts. While the term could be applied to many historical interactions between journalists and military personnel, it first came to be used in the media coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The United States military responded to pressure from the country's news media who were disappointed by the level of access granted during the 1991 Gulf War and the 2001 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan.

        At the start of the war in March 2003, as many as 775 reporters and photographers were traveling as embedded journalists. These reporters signed contracts with the military promising not to report information that could compromise unit position, future missions, classified weapons, and information they might find. Joint training for war correspondents started in November 2002 in advance of start of the war. When asked why the military decided to embed journalists with the troops, Lt. Col. Rick Long of the U.S. Marine Corps replied, "Frankly, our job is to win the war. Part of that is information warfare. So we are going to attempt to dominate the information environment.

          An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational or tactical goal. Another term for an offensive often used by the media is 'invasion', or the more general 'attack'.

2.  Inner Margin of a book or document refers to ___________ 


The right answer is Gutter Margin. 

   Footnote is an additional piece of information printed at the bottom of a page.

In publishing, a colophon is a brief statement containing information about the publication of a book such as the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. A colophon may also be emblematic or pictorial in nature. Colophons were formerly printed at the ends of books, but in modern works they are usually located at the verso of the title-leaf.





The gutter margin is a typographical term used to designate an additional margin added to a page layout to compensate for the part of the paper made unusable by the binding process. In a facing pages layout (Word refers to this type of layout as "mirror margins"), the gutter margin is on the very inside of both pages. So this is the Correct answer.



A swash is a typographical flourish, such as an exaggerated serif, terminal, tail, entry stroke, etc., on a glyph. The use of swash characters dates back to at least the 16th century, as they can be seen in Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi's La Operina, which is dated 1522. As with italic type in general, they were inspired by the conventions of period handwriting. Arrighini's designs influenced designers in Italy and particularly in France.





3.   Magazines have well-defined formats to reach out to _______

  The editor is committed to the magazine, to it reaching a 
readership, to its identity and survival. So the right
answer is select audiences.

4.     Factor of __Localisation__ has contributed for the emergence of a specialized media audience.

5.     In Semiotics, smoke is considered as________

The right answer is Indexical communication.
                  
Based on the ideas of Peirce, three modes of relationship between sign vehicles and their referents are commonly referred to.
  • Symbolic: a sign which does not resemble the signified but which is 'arbitrary' or purely conventional (e.g. the word 'stop', a red traffic light, a national flag, a number);

  • Iconic: a sign which resembles the signified (e.g. a portrait, a cinematic image, an x-ray, a diagram, a scale-model, onomatopoeia, 'realistic' sounds in music, sound effects in radio drama, a dubbed film soundtrack, imitative gestures);

  • Indexical: a sign which is directly connected in some way (existentially or causally) to the signified (e.g. smoke, weathercock, thermometer, clock, spirit-level, footprint, fingerprint, knock on door, pulse rate, rashes, pain).
    

6.     In communication, pleasure results from a particular relationship between meanings and __Power.

This is taken from John Fiske’s book “Television Culture”. Below is a paragraph from his book.

Pleasure results from a particular relationship between meanings and power. Pleasure for the subordinate is produced by the assertion of one’s social identity in resistance to, in independence of, or in negotiation with, the structure of domination. There is no pleasure in being a “cultural dope”: there is, however, real pleasure to be found in, for example, soap operas that assert the legitimacy of feminine meanings and identities within and against patriarchy. 


7.     “ Another Communication is ____ receiver centric.

The Growth of a Deeper Understanding of the Nature of Communication Itself The perspective on communication has changed. As explained above, early models in the 50s and 60s saw the communication process simply as a message going from a sender to a receiver (that is, Laswell’s classic S-M-R model). The emphasis was mainly sender- and media-centric; the stress laid on the freedom of the press, the absence of censorship, and so on.

Since the 70s, however, communication has become more receiver- and message-centric. The emphasis now is more on the process of communication (that is, the exchange of meaning) and on the significance of this process (that is, the social relationships created by communication and the social institutions and context which result from such relationships).

‘Another’ communication “favours multiplicity, smallness of scale, locality, de-institutionalisation, interchange of sender-receiver roles (and) horizontality of communication links at all levels of society” (McQuail, 1983:97). As a result, the focus moves from a ‘communicator-‘ to a more ‘receiver-centric’ orientation, with the resultant emphasis on meaning sought and ascribed rather than information transmitted.

8.      The term ‘audiences’recognizes ___ The resistance__  of media consumers.
   
In my opinion resistance is the appropriate word. Some of the related lines below.

 Audience can be active (constantly filtering or resisting content) or passive (complying and vulnerable).

Audiencehood and consumerhood should be seen as process where the elements of both power and resistance work simultaneously.

9.     Louis Wirth and Talcott Parsons see mass communication as a tool of __________.

Theorists such as Louis Wirth and Talcott Parsons have emphasized the importance of mass media as instrument of social control (Right answer).

Louis Wirth studied in the United States and became a leading figure in Chicago School Sociology. His interests included city life, minority group behaviour and mass media and he is recognised as one of the leading urban sociologists. Wirth's major contribution to social theory of urban space was a classic essay Urbanism as a Way of Life, published in the American Journal of Sociology in 1938.
His research was mostly concerned with how Jewish immigrants adjusted to life in urban America, as well as the distinct social processes of city life. Wirth was a supporter of applied sociology, and believed in taking the knowledge offered by his discipline and using it to solve real social problems.

Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) is an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism. Parsons is considered one of the most influential figures in the early development of American sociology. After earning a PhD in economics, he served on the faculty at Harvard University from 1927 to 1979, and in 1930, was among the first professors in its newly created sociology department.
Based on empirical data, Parsons' social action theory was the first broad, systematic, and generalizable theory of social systems developed in the United States. For this reason, his contemporaries viewed him as the founder of scientific sociology and Auguste Comte, the founder of the discipline, once called him, "the founder of the religion of humanity".

10.  When the consequences of exposure to a communicated message get delayed, it is known as _________________.

Sleeper Effect (Right Answer)
If you are interested in persuasion and understanding how a person's attitude might change over time, then you will want to know about the sleeper effect. A concept in psychology, it describes the way a message, when paired with some sort of discounting cue, has a delayed impact on the recipient.
A useful, concrete example is advertising. Have you ever seen a TV ad that plays again and again? Maybe it was an ad for a breakfast cereal or a car that appealed to you. However, as you saw the same ad the next day, and then again the day after that, it might have started to lose some of its excitement and appeal. In fact, you probably started to get tired of that cereal brand or car even before you tried it for yourself. This is normal; research shows that exposure to the same message multiple times leads to a decrease in the message's efficacy. Most viewers gradually return to their original attitude about the subject of the persuasion, in this case the commercials' products.
On the other hand, maybe you have seen an ad accompanied by a disclaimer. In psychology, we call this sort of disclaimer a discounting cue. The cue could be a warning about the side effects of a preservative in the cereal or a defect in the car's air bag. Yet another example would be a message at the end of a political ad showing that the opposing candidate funded the ad. Any disclaimer or reason leading you to doubt the credibility of the message's source is a discounting cue. These cues make you skeptical about the ad's message, and you consequently won't allow it to seriously persuade you. However, even with the presence of a discounting cue, over time you and most other viewers will be affected by the ad and come to accept its message. This delayed persuasion is the sleeper effect. A good way to remember it is to think of the ad's message as sleeping inside of you while the disclaimer is awake; little by little, the ad's underlying message wakes up and wins you over when the discounting cue falls to sleep!


How It Works
We are not completely sure how the sleeper effect works, but some psychologists have hypothesized that it has to do with forgetting. According to this hypothesis, with repeated exposure to the same message, we simply forget about the discounting cue over time, even while we remember the underlying message! Another, related hypothesis has to do with dissociation. Here, researchers believe that rather than forgetting the discounting cue altogether, we disconnect ourselves from it and prioritize the initial message, taking its meaning more seriously once it isn't readily associated with the discounting cue.
While recent research on these theories seems to support the hypotheses to some extent, the terms are too absolute in nature. Most viewers or listeners are unlikely to forget or dissociate from the discounting cue entirely, and certainly not quickly. Instead, we tend to do so gradually over time. There is a slow process going on in our brains as one message fades in strength while another grows in importance.

11.  Who is the author of “ Saving the Media” ?





12.  John Fiske considers speech as a ______________

John Fiske’s Codes of Television

An event to be televised is already encoded by social codes (Right Answer) such as those of:

Level one: "REALITY"

appearance, dress, make-up, environment, behavior, speech, gesture, expression, sound, etc. these are encoded electronically by technical codes such as those of:

Level two: REPRESENTATION

camera, lighting, editing, music, sound which transmit the conventional representational codes, which shape the representations of, for example: narrative, conflict, character, action, dialogue, setting, casting, etc.

Level three: IDEOLOGY

which are organized into coherence and social acceptability by the ideological codes, such as those of: individualism, patriarchy, race, class, materialism, capitalism, etc.

Fiske have put speech as a social code, and dialogue (i.e. scripted speech) as a technical one, but in practice the two are almost indistinguishable: social psychologists such as Berne (1964) have shown us how dialogue in "real life" is frequently scripted for us by the interactional conventions of our culture.

13.  Truth of the statement is not a defence against ___Defamation____.

Defenses to Libel and Slander

Truth:   
                In many legal systems, adverse public statements about legal citizens presented as fact must be proven false to be defamatory or slanderous/libellous. Proving adverse public character statements to be true is often the best defense against a prosecution for libel or defamation. Statements of opinion that cannot be proven true or false will likely need to apply some other kind of defense. The use of the defense of justification has dangers, however; if the defendant libels the plaintiff and then runs the defense of truth and fails, he may be said to have aggravated the harm.



14. Examination of professionalism is derived from the public’s right to ________.

I didn’t find its answer anywhere and according to me its answer is Education (Right Answer).

15.  The technique of propaganda is used in international communication to manipulate ___Cognitions____.

A working definition of propaganda which focuses on the communication process is as follows: “Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist” ( Jowett & O'Donnell 2006 ). 

16.  The protagonist of culture imperialism theory was ___________.

Out of the four options only William Hachten (Right Answer)is related to Culture imperialism theory.

17.  Name the influential scholar who applied liberation theology to education and communication in development context.

The right answer is Paolo Friere (Right Answer). This question is directly lifted from book Communication for Development in the Third World : Theory and Practice for Empowerment written by Srinivas Melkote and H. Leslie Steeves.

In chapter 8, Communication and Spirtiality in development, “ Probably the most influential scholar to apply liberation theology specifically to education and communication practice in development contexts is Paolo Friere (1970,1973).

18. The notion of multiplicity of paradigm is elaborated by __Jan Servaes___

In the book “New Frontiers in International Communication Theory” written by Mehdi Semati on 59th page it is clearly written “ The new paradigm, which can be broadly described as multiplicity in one world, is gradually emerging but still in the process of formation ( Jan Servaes 1991, 52). This statement from Servaes, an advocate of the multiplicity paradigm, summarizes the circumstances surrounding the emergence of the paradigm”.

19.  The dependency theory has identified obstacles to development as _______

The right answer is External.  In the book Appalachia’s path to dependency written by Paul Salstrom it is clearly written, “ The insight behind dependency theory is that economic development can be hampered not only by local obstacles but also by obstacles that are external to a region or country. In these regions Dependency theory can aid understanding better than can modernisation theory”.

What is Dependency Theory?

Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system".

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today's underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today's developed areas at some time in the past, and that therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.

20.  A systematically – qualitative data set is amenable to ______ analysis

I could not find the exact answer but I think the answer is Grounded Theory.

Grounded theory is a general research method (and thus is not owned by any one school or discipline); which guides you on matters of data collection and details rigorous procedures for data analysis. You can use quantitative data; or qualitative data of any type e.g. video, images, text, observations, spoken word etc.

Grounded theory is a research tool which enables you to seek out and conceptualise the latent social patterns and structures of your area of interest through the process of constant comparison. Initially you will use an inductive approach to generate substantive codes from your data, later your developing theory will suggest to you where to go next to collect data and which, more-focussed, questions to ask. This is the deductive phase of the grounded theory process.



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